Bodies and Structures 2.0: Deep-Mapping Modern East Asian History

The Crackdown

Original: 閩海外洋間多夷船漂泊,恐與沿海奸民勾結販運鴉片煙土違禁等陋。當經密檄責成水陸文武,各省設法查拿。當於道光十六年十一月擬。

The ocean off the Fujian coast now consistently has a multitude of foreign boats floating back and forth. We [the Governor-General and Governor] are fearful that the treacherous people of the coastal areas will collude with the foreigners to sell opium, defy the prohibition and induce other evils.

Thereupon was issued a secret call to arms among the military and civil officials on land and water, for the various provinces to strive towards finding and arresting the criminals. This was enacted in the eleventh month of the sixteenth year of the Daoguang Emperor's reign [December, 1836].

Original: 前範興泉永道戴嘉鼓、前罷泉州府深汝瀚、罷晉江縣知縣朱程等訪問。泉州府屬之於晉江縣轄衙口鄉地方有民人施猴等,私出海洋販運煙土之事。當即會恭拿獲販煙施猴等,各名錄供親驗。臣等擬辦提省審辦嚴拿物運究現。又擬該管文武續獲施塞光等四十名,起獲船隻、銀蕃、器械、煙土等件。並將施猴等在沿海荒坪搭蓋囤煙草寮全行拆毀。據經臣等批令一並解省審究,並將獲犯原由附片具奏。

The Xinghua-Quan-Yong Daotai Dai Jiagu together with the Quanzhou Prefect Shen Ruhan and the Jinjiang County Magistrate Zhu Cheng have now memorialized about Yakou Village in Jinjiang county, part of Quanzhou prefecture, where Shi Hou and others committed unauthorized maritime trade in opium.

Now we can report that the opium monger Shi Hou and others have been captured, their names and testimony recorded and personally inspected. We have ordered them to be brought to the provincial capital for prosecution, and the material evidence has been meticulously collected and examined.

The civil and military officials then proceeded to capture Shi Saiguang and 40 others. They confiscated boats, silver, weapons, opium and other items. Meanwhile, officials demolished the grass shack Shi Hou had built in the wastelands for opium storage. We then ordered all suspects to be brought to the provincial capital, and have included their testimonies in an attached memorial.

Original: 施猴先後向夷船買販鴉片、開設煙館,並接濟夷船水米無庸藐法可惡。查勾夷販煙例,無做何治罪將修其開設煙館案例定罪止絞候,現應比例從重問擬。施猴應比照奸徒將米偷運外洋接濟奸匪絞立決例,擬絞立決

Shi Hou, for purchasing opium from foreign ships and aiding and abetting those foreign ships with water and rice, is guilty of the most evil, bold lawlessness. For this reason we have followed the more severe path of punishment.

Shi Hou will be punished in accordance with the law against treacherous people bringing rice to the outer ocean to aid and abet traitorous criminals, and is sentenced to immediate death by strangulation.

Original: 施塞光自出本向夷船販買煙土開設煙館誘令良民買食,應照例問擬。施塞光即監生施肇應罷去監生

Shi Saiguang, for using silver to purchase opium from foreign boats, and for opening an opium den to entice good people to purchase and ingest opium, will be punished according to statute.

Shi Saiguang, otherwise known as licentiate student Shi Zhao, will be cashiered of his licentiate status.

Note: The memorial refers to the aspiring foreign expert Shi Shubao as “at large” (在逃). He was never captured or punished.

Source: Junji chu Hanwen lufu zouzhe (Grand Council Chinese-Language Palace Memorial Copies, often cited as LFZZ), Beijing: First Historical Archives, 03–4007–048, DG 18.10.29.

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